The term Biosecurity denotes, for broiler breeding, all the hygiene provisions and practices designed not only to protect the animals against contamination by pathogenic agents, but also avoid the latter’s spreading from a farm if it is contaminated.
The layout of the building and its immediate vicinity must be taken into account in preventing risks of contamination.
A Biosecurity plan that can be consulted by everyone is compulsory in poultry farming. It comprises the following 3 activity zones: public, professional and breeding.
Each breeding area has its own sanitary airlock. This is divided into 2 washable and disinfectable areas. It must be equipped with a hot water washbasin, liquid soap, paper towels and waste bins.
The drinking water intended for the Broiler is not subject to any legislation setting quality standards, unlike water for human consumption, which is required to fulfil potability criteria. The regulations solely stipulate that it should be of “adequate” quality, and to meet this requirement, a certain number of criteria are defined.
Although no established standard exists, it is recommended to test for the absence of microorganisms (total Coli, E. coli, streptococci, etc.) in 100 ml of water.
Contamination may already occur at the water catchment point, but also in the farm piping, particularly owing to the residual biofilm. In order to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water, an analysis should be carried out (ideally at the airlock and at the end of the line). In the event of inadequate bacteriological quality, it is recommended that corrective measures be taken: checking the watertightness of the catchment point and implementing water disinfection (chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide or chlorine).
It is essential to be aware of the physical and chemical quality of the drinking water, as under certain circumstances, it may cause:
It is recommended to perform a physical and chemical analysis of the water at least once every 2 years.
Purging under pressure is paramount during the cleaning operations to achieve a sufficient mechanical flushing effect in order to wash out the impurities removed from the piping walls by the cleaning products.
The standard procedure for cleaning the inside of the pipes to remove as much biofilm as possible is as follows:
The circulator with continuous return to the tank device ensures that good water quality is maintained and that cleaning is carried out during the batch.
The washing and scouring of certain parts of the building are the most tedious but above all the most important operations for properly carrying out a disinfection procedure.
Organic matter (straw, droppings) inhibits the action of the disinfectants. The success of disinfection is thus influenced by the thoroughness applied to the cleaning process.
Only a clean surface can be disinfected.
Good disinfection is impossible without proper washing beforehand, which already achieves 70 to 80% of the decontamination.
Washing and disinfection of the ventilation systems is also essential to avoid rapid and early recontamination of a batch of birds.
This is the first disinfection operation after washing the building. It is usually carried out by spraying the previously cleaned surfaces. On no account should it be performed by thermal fogging or nebulisation on health and regulatory grounds.
There are risk factors in a badly performed spray disinfection:
The equipment used for decontamination:
The use of a foam gun makes it easier to apply the disinfectant, provided that a foaming product is used. When applied in foam form, the disinfectant is more effective (combination of quaternary ammoniums and aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid). Furthermore, the foam allows the product to achieve better adhesion to the surface, thereby increasing the contact time and therefore the efficacy of the decontamination.
As an be seen in the table below, bacterial surface contamination increases during the depopulation period and during the phase of preparing the building to the next batch:
Aerial disinfection, generally applied by thermal fogging, is recommended to reduce final contamination, before entry of the day-old birds, to that of the beginning of depopulation.
For operator safety, protective measures are indispensable during operations involving Cleaning & Disinfection.
Very broad-spectrum cryptosporicidal, coccidiocidal, bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal disinfectant for livestock farms