Biosecurity serve to prevent or limit the introduction, circulation and persistence of contaminants (pathogens that cause diseases) in laying hen farms. The main risks of a disease’s spreading lie in the movements of individuals, vehicles and equipment items between farms and production units.
The facility must be designed and protected so as to avoid insofar as possible introducing salmonellae and other pathogenic agents. Three activity zones are defined, access to which must be restricted. These are the public zone, the professional zone and the breeding zone.
A plan summarising these elements of information is available and can be consulted by anyone entering the laying hen farm.
The layout of the building and its vicinity must allow effective cleaning and disinfection operations, followed by a sufficient depopulation period to interrupt a possible contamination cycle.
The buildings and their surroundings must be regularly freed of rats. Insect control is essential. In this respect, it is also necessary to ensure that a record is kept of insecticide treatments and rat disinfestation operations.
The equipment, which is potentially a vector for salmonellae, must be stored in a dedicated room. It should be cleaned and disinfected before being introduced and/or used.
The drinking water intended for the laying hens is not subject to any legislation setting quality standards, unlike water for human consumption, which is required to fulfil potability criteria. The regulations solely stipulate that it should be of “adequate” quality, and to meet this requirement, a certain number of criteria are defined.
Although no established standard exists, it is recommended to test for the absence of microorganisms (total Coli, E. coli, streptococci, etc.) in 100 ml of water.
Contamination may already occur at the water catchment point, but also in the farm piping, particularly owing to the residual biofilm . In order to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water, an analysis should be carried out (ideally at the airlock and at the end of the line). In the event of inadequate bacteriological quality, it is recommended that corrective measures be taken: checking the watertightness of the catchment point and implementing water disinfection (chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide or chlorine).
It is essential to be aware of the physical and chemical quality of the drinking water, as under certain circumstances, it may cause:
A physical and chemical analysis of the water should be carried out at least once every 2 years.
Purging under pressure is essential during the cleaning operations to achieve a sufficient mechanical flushing effect in order to wash out the impurities removed from the piping walls by the cleaning products.
The standard procedure for cleaning the inside of the pipes to remove as much biofilm as possible is as follows:
The circulator with continuous return to the tank device ensures that good water quality is maintained and that cleaning is carried out during the batch.
After the laying hens have left, the cleaning, disinfection and depopulation operations are compulsory. Manure must be removed from the building before these operations are carried out. The tractors and other manure handling equipment must also be decontaminated afterwards.
The storage and spreading of the animal faeces and cleaning water must not constitute a source of contamination for the environment.
The cleaning water must be discharged either into a pit or a waste water network.
Cleaning and disinfection of the breeding premises and their annexes, as well as the equipment, are carried out according to a written protocol, using an authorised disinfectant. This protocol must also take account of control of pests, particularly rodents, insects and unwanted mites. Finally, the surroundings must be decontaminated according to the procedures mentioned above.
For operator safety, protective measures are indispensable during operations involving Cleaning & Disinfection.
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