The term Biosecurity denotes, for rearing breeding hens, all the hygiene provisions and practices designed not only to protect the animals against contamination by pathogenic agents, but also avoid the latter’s spreading from a farm if it is contaminated.
Owing to the pyramid-like structure of the poultry sector, Biosecurity measures must be stepped up on breeder farms.
This applies to:
It is imperative to ensure that the surroundings of the breeding building(s) are protected and that their access is forbidden to any persons or animals. It is therefore essential to install a mesh fence to enclose these boundaries. The passage through this fence must be secured by a gate for personnel as well as for vehicles.
t is also important to have a different exit for the effluents (manure, droppings and waste water) in order to avoid crossing circuits.
The following elements should be located at the entrance to the protected enclosure:
On layer farms, the buildings are equipped with a sorting room, an egg disinfection airlock and finally an air conditioned room for their storage.
The personnel responsible for egg collection must have access separate from that of the farm personnel and must not enter the rooms housing the poultry.
An enty register is provided for any outside visitors, which they must complete.
Decontamination of the buildings is the subject of a protocole written and recorded protocol.
The materials of which the buildings are constructed must facilitate this decontamination.
The floor must be concreted and the walls made of smooth materials (plastics, sandwich boards), resistant to the pressures of the washing equipment (at least 150 bars).
The washing waters are collected in an outside pit, which is emptied before the building is disinfected.
The buildings must be equipped with devices to prevent entry of wild birds. At the very least, a grid should be installed on the air inlets.
Rodent and insect control must be the subject of intervention procedures with written records.
Foodborne contamination of the breeding hens remains a factor not to be ruled out.
During rearing for breeding purposes, heat treatment of the feed is essential (for 1 minute at 85°C), as it reduces bacterial flora. It also reduces the risk of contamination by salmonellae.
Samples of each delivery are kept for a minimum of 4 months, in order to ensure traceability in case of confirmed problem issues in commercial breeding.
The drinking water must be treated against bacteriological contaminants and must be tested at least every 6 months.
Filtration of incoming air is required in breeding undertakings in order to trap the aerosols that carry pathogens.
After the breeding hens have left, the cleaning, disinfection and depopulation operations are compulsory. Manure must be removed from the building before these operations are carried out. The tractors and other manure handling equipment must also be decontaminated afterwards.
The storage and spreading of the animal faeces and cleaning water must not constitute a source of contamination for the environment.
Thecleaning water must be discharged either into a pit or a waste water network.
Cleaning and disinfection of the breeding premises and their annexes, as well as the equipment, are carried out according to a written protocol, using authorised products (detergents and disinfectants in accordance with legislation). This protocol must also take account of control of pests, particularly rodents, insects and unwanted mites. Finally, the surroundings must be decontaminated according to the procedures mentioned in the corresponding chapter.
Only a clean surface can be disinfected.
Good disinfection is impossible without proper washing beforehand, which already achieves 70 to 80% of the decontamination.
Washing and disinfection of the ventilation systems is also essential to avoid rapid and early recontamination of a batch of birds.
For operator safety, protective measures are indispensable during operations involving Cleaning & Disinfection.