The term Bisecurity denotes for the farm all the hygiene provisions and practices designed not only to protect the animals against contamination by pathogenic agents, but also avoid the latter’s spreading from a farm if it is contaminated.
In duck breeding, Biosecurity measures are paramount for the animals’ health and food safety. These measures have been regulated in many European countries since the 2016 Influenza crisis.
The layout of the building and its immediate vicinity must be taken into account in preventing risks of contamination.
A biosecurity plan that can be consulted by everyone is compulsory on the farm. It comprises the following 3 activity zones: public, professional and breeding.
Each breeding zone has its own sanitary airlock. This is divided into 2 washable and disinfectable areas. The sanitary airlock must be equipped with a hot water washbasin, liquid soap, paper towels and waste bins.
The surroundings of the building must be clean and well maintained (grass cut, no waste stored along the walls) to avoid harbouring pests (rodents, insects). The entrances to the building have concrete slabs in front to facilitate disinfection.
In the event of an epizotic disease, spreading of quicklime (500g/m²) on the approaches to the buildings (protected boundaries) is recommended, particularly in front of the airlock, gates and in high traffic areas.
The drinking water intended for the animals is not subject to any legislation setting quality standards, unlike water for human consumption, which is required to fulfil potability criteria. The regulations solely stipulate that it should be of “adequate” quality, and to meet this requirement, a certain number of criteria are defined.
Although no established standard exists, it is recommended to test for the absence of microorganisms (total Coli, E. coli, streptococci, etc.) in 100 ml of water.
Contamination may already occur at the water catchment point, but also in the farm piping, particularly owing to the residual biofilm . In order to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water, an analysis should be carried out (ideally at the airlock and at the end of the line). In the event of inadequate bacteriological quality, it is recommended that corrective measures be taken: checking the watertightness of the catchment point and implementing water disinfection (chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide or chlorine).
It is essential to be aware of the physical and chemical quality of the drinking water, as under certain circumstances, it may cause:
A physical and chemical analysis of the water should be carried out at least once every 2 years.
Purging under pressure is essential during the cleaning operations to achieve a sufficient mechanical flushing effect in order to wash out the impurities removed from the piping walls by the cleaning products.
The standard procedure for cleaning the inside of the pipes to remove as much biofilm as possible is as follows:
The circulator with continuous return to the tank device ensures that good water quality is maintained and that cleaning is carried out during the batch.
The washing and scouring of certain parts of the building are the most tedious but above all the most important operations for properly carrying out a disinfection procedure.
Organic matter (droppings, etc.) inhibits the action of disinfectants. The success of disinfection is thus influenced by the thoroughness applied to the cleaning process..
It is highly recommended to dismantle the slatted floor when cleaning the building in order to clean it from all sides.
Only a clean surface can be disinfected.
Good disinfection is impossible without proper washing beforehand, which already achieves 70 to 80 % of the decontamination.
Washing and disinfection of the ventilation systems is also essential to avoid rapid and early recontamination of a batch of ducks.
This is the first disinfection operation after washing the building. It is usually carried out by spraying the previously cleaned surfaces. On no account should it be performed by thermal fogging or nebulisation on health and regulatory grounds.
There are risk factors in a badly performed spray disinfection:
Aerial disinfection, generally applied by thermal fogging, is recommended to reduce final contamination, before entry of the day-old ducklings, to that of the beginning of the depopulation period.
The equipment used for decontamination
The use of a foam gun makes it easier to apply the disinfectant, provided that a foaming product is used. When applied in foam form, the disinfectant is more effective. Indeed, the foam allows the product to achieve better adhesion to the surface, thereby increasing the contact time and therefore the efficacy of the decontamination.
For operator safety, protective measures are indispensable during operations involving Cleaning & Disinfection.
Non-foaming descaler and disinfectant for drinking waterFind out +
Professional rodenticide (mouse and rat poison) in case of moderate infestationFind out +